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Milk Hygiene


Moloko-Kraina cooperative is responsible for the milk quality to its buyers. In order to improve the quality of its milk,  cooperative’s professionals have developed practical recommendations for the APC members following which they can improve the milk quality, increase the productivity and secure the healthy growth of the cow.

Preparation to milking. Before milking, prepare a dish with warm water, a towel, clean the stall, the litter, the manure channel, and the cow. A tail should be tied to the cow’s leg in order to prevent the cow from moving it and making the milk dirty.

Milk bucket. Milk bucket should be bound with 2-3 layers of gauze. Before milking, the dairyperson has to put on a coat or overalls and a head dress.

Hands preparation. Before milking, the dairyperson should wash hands with warm water with soap and wipe them with a clean towel. Hands should be clean, without chaps, nails have to be cut.

Udder preparation. Just before milking, the udder should be washed with warm water, then wiped with clean towel or tissue, and massaged, the right half first, downwards and upwards, and then the left half. Udder of the first-time calved cows should be massaged especially carefully.

Time for udder preparation. One should remember that milk ejection period is limited. That is why, udder washing and massaging should take not more than 1 minute.

Dishes. Enameled bucket is used for milk pail. It is not allowed to use zink-coated buckets.

Feeding during milking. In the milking period fodder or succulent feed is not allowed. A cow must be fed only with concentrates.

Milking of the first strips of milk. The first two or three strips of milk are milked into a separate vessel in order to exclude the ingress of microflora to the general milk yield. Attention should be paid to the clots, flakes, blood or pus. Their presence demonstrates inflammatory processes in the mammary gland. Such milk is not allowed to be sold. The optimal number of nipple graspings is 80-90 times per minute. Care of udder and nipples and correct milking favor to high milk yields and prevent the inflammatory processes in the udder. After milking, the final massaging and lubricating of udder should be made.

Filtering. Milk is filtered through 4-6 layers of gauze or 2 layers of waffle-cloth or 1 layer of lavsan (polyethyleneterephthalate) cloth. In case of manual milking, filters should be changed after every 40 to 50 litres.

Milk vessels. Milk is filtered into a separate bucket and placed into the refrigerator without covering. If there is no possibility to store milk in the refrigerator, the vessel with milk is put into a container with cold water which is refilled from time to time (first every 15 to 20 minutes, then in 30 minutes). The level of water in the open vessel must be lower than the level of milk, and the vessel must be covered with a layer of gauze. As the milk is cooling, the vessel with milk must be covered with a cover. 3 to 5 litres of cool water are used for cooling 1 liter of milk. Milk is stored in a closed vessel, separately from substances that have strong smell. It is not allowed to mix milk of different milk yields in the process of storing (cooled and freshly milked).

Milk vessels disinfection. Containers and buckets released from milk are rinsed with clear water at once and they should be washed with a brush and hot (50C) solution of detergent not later than in 1 hour. Soda ash or synthetic detergents are used for washing. After that buckets are carefully rinsed with water for removing the remains of detergent and are kept upside down. Cloth filters are washed with soap or washing detergent and carefully rinsed with water after each time they are used. Once a day, the filters should be disinfected with “Belizna” or other detergent by boiling them during 10 minutes or ironing.

Mastitis. The most characteristic features of cow acute mastitis is considerable increasing of the udder, intense pain, redness, raising of temperature in the place of inflammation, lowering of productivity, loss of milk quality.

Diagnosing of mastitis. Different laboratory methods are used for timely determining if cows are ill with mastitis, and these methods provide for milk examination. Even if no symptoms of mastitis are visible, it is necessary to control the milk gland every month at a special veterinary laboratory.

Treatment. A large number of special effective remedies is used for treatment and prevention of mastitis. Prompt treatment guarantees full recovery of a diseased animal. In case of suspicion for mastitis, a veterinary doctor should be called for at once for providing the qualified aid.

It should be remembered that, the remains of antibiotics and other remedies are stored for some time in milk of animals that have been cured, and they make the product quality worse. Milk from ill animals must not get into the general milk yield in any case during 5 to 7 days after the cow has been treated. Consumption of products from cows ill for mastitis causes serious consequences for people, especially for children. Those can be gastrointestinal tract upsets, respiratory and skin diseases, acute infectious diseases, common for animals and people (brucellosis, leucosis, tuberculosis, rabies etc.).

Microbial pollution. Disinfection of nipples and udder skin after every milking has a great importance for lowering the microbial pollution of milk. For this purpose, special means of disinfection are used by aerosol applying, moistening or rubbing of nipple and udder skin. (For further information apply to your veterinarian).